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Lots of good comments & replies here .
The welding tip is good because the electric welding shrinks the stud ever so slightly .
This comes in handy on those 1960's Ford front hubs that didn't have any lip to pound out a bead bearing race ~ the trick is to weld a bead around the face if the race, right where the rollers would touch ~ this will normally make that old race fall right out in your hand .
Also handy when working on vintage Motocycles, the steering neck bearing races often do not want to come out no matter what and you don't want to damage the paint ~ arc weld a bead and they fall right out .
The penetrant used makes a difference ~ I was a big beliver in Liquid Wrench in the early 1960's , then various others like Gibbs, PB Blaster etc., etc. all are very good, not a one is close to Kroil ~ once you try it you'll be convinced, I've yet to meet anyone who didn't prefer it after one use .
The heat and wax thing is good too, try it on some rusty lug nuts and see .
There are you tube videos about using heat and candle wax .